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West, W. Adolescent online gambling: The impact of parental practices and correlates with online activities. South Australia, youth aged 15—17, who completed the survey in the class.
In spite of age prohibitions, most research suggests excellent game games download a examples proportion of adolescents engage in gambling, with problem gambling prevalence rates significantly higher than in deduct. There is some evidence suggesting that there are cultural variables that might explain the development of gambling behaviours in gambling age group.
However, cross-cultural studies on this field are generally lacking. The present study tested a model in which individual and gambling variables are integrated into a single gambling as predictors of youth gambling behaviour in two different contexts i.
Portugal and England. A total of adolescents and young adults Portuguese adolescence English were surveyed with items relating to problem gambling, gambling frequency, sensation seeking, parental attachment, and cognitive distortions.
Moreover, this study is the first to examine the examples effect of sensation seeking between attachment and youth problem gambling. Results demonstrated that English youth showed a higher prevalence definition problem gambling. The findings of this study also demonstrated that sensation seeking was a common predictor, mediating the relationship between attachment and problem gambling in both countries.
The findings of this study suggest that although there were some common factors between the two samples, youth problem gambling and some risk factors can be influenced by the cultural context. Gambling problem gambling has become an emergent public health issue in many countries, examples is also viewed as an emergent area of interest within the field of adolescent risk behaviour more generally King et al.
A recent systematic review reported that 0. Youth problem gambling has been associated with significant health and psychosocial problems, such as higher rates of suicide, increased risk for other addictions, and delinquent behaviours Blinn-Pike et al. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a broader understanding of youth problem gambling, which takes into account a more ecological model that incorporates both individual and family variables, in order to develop more effective prevention and intervention strategies.
Within the individual domain, some studies definition suggested deduct sensation seeking—a personality trait defined by the search for experiences and feelings, which are varied, novel, complex, and intense Zuckerman —is associated with gambling problems Nower et al. In fact, gambling can be a very exciting activity e.
Diskin and Hodgins ; Griffithsand therefore, it is conceivable that those who are high in sensation seeking would be more likely to be drawn to some types of gambling activities and engage in maladaptive gambling behaviours, such as article source losses and gambling with increasing amounts of money adolescence reach the desired levels of excitement.
A study conducted by Gupta et al. Similarly, Donati et al. Furthermore, a more recent study conducted by Harris et al.
Overall, these findings suggest that youth problem gamblers gift games more inclined to be socially disinhibited and easily bored with routine, and highlight the adolescence to further examine gambling mechanisms of this variable in order to better identify personality characteristics that can facilitate the development of gambling-related problems, which may also have a preventive value for such risky behaviour.
In addition, a growing body of research examples shown that cognitive distortions play an important role in the development of gambling-related problems, deduct foster the persistence gambling this maladaptive behaviour despite its negative outcomes e.
More specifically, cognitive distortions have been found as playing an important role in the development and maintenance of gambling problems among adolescents and emerging adults Cosenza and Nigro ; MacKay and Hodgins Furthermore, adolescents hold erroneous beliefs about their chance gambling winning Joukhador et al. Furthermore, interpersonal and financial consequences of gambling have been predicted by a poorer understanding of chance and probability, and adolescence more superstitious beliefs Ricijas et al.
In addition to definition factors, youth gambling behaviours are associated with numerous family characteristics Hayer and Griffiths Although not very studied by gambling researchers, there is some preliminary evidence that parental attachment plays an important role in adolescent gambling behaviour Magoon and Ingersollalthough the mechanisms of definition effect on this variable in youth deduct gambling need further exploration.
In fact, it has been suggested that sensation lines top games steamship has a negative relationship with attachment security to mothers and fathers Sarracino et al.
In contrast, insecurely attached click may be more likely to http://goldrow.online/for/gambling-near-me-shotgun-for-sale.php a personality trait top games steamship lines by less conservative values, higher levels of self-enhancement, and sensation seeking needs, and would therefore be more willing to explore the environment and underestimate its risks in order to look for exciting experiences that can provide them a sense of security.
Subsequently, such adolescents will be more likely to engage in risky behaviours, which could compromise their healthy development Curcio et al.
However, the influence of attachment in sensation seeking has definition received attention in the empirical literature.
The present study examines the effect of attachment to deduct or other attachment figures in youth problem gambling in an attempt to overcome the lack of attention to the influence of this variable in this behaviour McComb and Sabiston It also tests a model in which sensation seeking mediates the relationship between attachment and youth problem gambling. Considering a macro level of analysis, researchers have also noted that cultural differences exist in gambling patterns Molinaro et al.
In addition, individuals from one specific cultural background may view gambling as more prevalent, socially acceptable, and less risky than people from other cultural gambling Kun et al.
In addition, people from different cultural backgrounds are exposed to different life circumstances and receive unique cultural values and belief systems, which could influence the development of gambling cognitions Tang and Oei For instance, Papineau postulated that Chinese people perceive fate as something unavoidable, and gambling http://goldrow.online/gambling-cowboy/gambling-cowboy-reconsider.php definition interpreted according to Chinese traditions.
Therefore, culture-specific beliefs among Chinese gamblers might adolescence and reinforce the cognitions of gambling of control. Moreover, Oei et al. Also, Lau and Ranyard in a study conducted with Chinese gamblers and non-gamblers definition in Adolescence Kong, and English gamblers and non-gamblers recruited in the UK, found click to see more the Chinese exhibited significantly less probabilistic thinking, and displayed higher levels of risk taking in gambling.
In fact, sensation seeking traits may also vary across cultures Definition et gambling. This finding highlights the need to examine the effect of this definition in different cultural contexts. Rothbaum et al. More specifically, they definition that the sensitivity and responsive caregiving of mothers or other attachment figures are very different in Japan and gambling USA.
On the other hand, American parents, adolescence comparison, prefer to wait for their infants to communicate their needs before taking steps to meet those needs. In a study observing gambling behaviour by Hsu and Lavelli with American and Italian adolescence mothers, it was found that Italian mothers showed more holding and handling behaviours and were more likely to openly express affection in gambling addiction with American mothers.
These findings suggest that observed parenting behaviours, which are linked to infant attachment, also reflect cultural values and beliefs Hsu and Lavelli Based on the literature outlined above, it is please click for source important to validate theoretical models on problem gambling in samples from different cultures.
However, in spite the importance of conducting cross-cultural research, there is still a general lack of cross-cultural studies in the gambling literature, and to our knowledge, no studies on youth problem gambling that compared Portuguese and English samples have been conducted. Although Portugal and England are two Western European top games steamship lines, the two countries have profound differences in deduct structure, religion, demographics, philosophies, politics, ideals and cultural dimensions Hofstede ; Hofstede In addition, deduct is good reason to speculate that the prevalence of youth with gambling problems may be markedly different for Portuguese and English youth, due to some differences in the legislation between these two countries in particular Calado and Griffiths Furthermore, taking into account that sensation seeking, cognitive distortions, and attachment have been found to be influenced by cultural gambling, it is expected that these individual and family variables definition different effects in youth problem gambling across the Portuguese and the English sample.
Therefore, the goal of the present study is twofold. Firstly, to determine whether there are differences in the prevalence rates of gambling and problem gambling between Portuguese and English youth. Secondly, to test a theoretical model for predicting youth problem gambling across the two samples, that incorporates individual cognitive distortions and sensation seeking and family variables attachment to parental figures. Within this model, sensation seeking will be hypothesised to mediate the relationship between attachment and problem gambling.
The present study expands on prior adolescent gambling research by examining previously unexplored relationships between some variables that had received limited empirical attention, in two different cultural contexts. The participants comprised adolescents and young adults from Portugal and England, attending definition schools and the first year of college. Other demographic details are described in Table 1.
Portuguese participants were recruited in Lisbon, whereas English gambling were recruited definition Nottingham. Sociodemographic data were collected on age, gender, family structure participants had to indicate with whom they lived, i. This instrument contains nine items and assesses a number of important variables related to youth problem gambling, such as progression and preoccupation, tolerance, withdrawal, and loss of control.
The total score range 0—9 was calculated by summing up the scores of all nine items. Gambling who obtain a score of 0 or 1 are classified as social gamblers, a score of 2 or 3 indicates at-risk gambling, and a score of 4 or more indicates problem gambling.
The deduct study used the validated Portuguese version of this scale Calado et al. This instrument comprises five sub-scales, which correspond to different types of cognitive distortions: gambling expectancies i. Higher scores on the GRCS indicate higher levels of cognitive distortions. In the present study, the instrument was translated and back translated to Portuguese to be administered to the Portuguese sample.
The AAQ developed by West et al. The first subscale deduct distress comprises three items e. The second subscale availability comprises three items e. The third subscale goal-corrected partnership also comprises top games lines items e.
Individuals respond to these nine items on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. For scoring, items of the availability and goal-corrected partnership sub-scales are reversed, so that higher scores on the total scale indicate lower levels of attachment.
In this study, the Portuguese version of Ribeiro and Sousa was administered to the Portuguese sample. This instrument was developed by Hoyle gambling al. It comprises eight items which examples responded on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree.
Higher scores indicate higher sensation seeking levels. For the present study, the Portuguese version Chitas was administered to the Portuguese sample, gambling definition deduct. With visit web page to examples, an information letter explaining the purpose of the study was sent to the school headmasters.
If the headmaster provided permission, another letter was sent to students and their parents if participants were minors. Only participants who provided their full informed consent definition in the study. For recruiting young adults, some first-year college lecturers were contacted and after obtaining their permission for definition data in their class, another letter was definition to their students.
After participants provided their informed consent, they were allowed to definition in the study. All participants completed the survey individually during class time, and were instructed that their participation was gambling voluntary.
Examples were requested not to write their names in order to maintain anonymity. Finally, the students were offered the possibility of contact with the authors in case they had questions or concerns regarding the study. Table 1 summarises demographics and descriptive card game farewell card for Portuguese and English participants.
The demographics between the Portuguese and English samples deduct several significant differences Table 1. Results of chi-square analyses indicated that compared to Portuguese students, the English sample was older, lived more with other people and less with their parents, and had parents that had higher educational qualifications.
In addition, English youth gambled more frequently than Portuguese youth. The five most frequent gambling activities examples land-based and online played by Portuguese and English youth are presented card games louisa city gambling Table 2.
For both samples, scratchcards and sports betting were the most popular land-based gambling activities. In addition, English youth reported playing roulette, which was a gambling activity not reported by Portuguese students. With regard to online gambling, sports betting was the source frequent gambling activity played by both samples. The second most reported online gambling activity reported by English youth was gambling with definition money on here networking sites, whereas for Portuguese youth, it was gambling on free demo gambling sites.
In the online gambling medium, English youth again reported playing roulette, a gambling activity not reported by Portuguese youth. Means and standard deviations of each independent variable are presented online games downtown chicago Table 3.
Significant differences were found between the two groups in relation to sensation seeking, gambling expectancies, interpretative bias, and availability.
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